Autodesk Revit

AutoCAD 2013 book’s by Milton Chanes


I’ve started working on a new project. This new book is about AutoCAD, version 2013. However, unlike any of the books that I have written before, it raises the challenge of creating new exercises aimed at working in 3D that still manage to  operate under a unifying theme, a football stadium.The truth is that Uruguayan football (soccer), is going through a period of excellence that, as an Uruguayan, I cannot ignore or help feeling proud of. It is an unavoidable truth that today’s selection of Spanish players, with Barcelona’s club at the front, are  creating their own way of playing football. It is a style reminiscent of Holland’s “Naranja Mecánica” (Literally, “A Clockwork Orange”, a pet name for the Dutch team based on their detailed passing techniques), though they failed to win the World Cup in ’74. It also calls to mind the “Jogo bonito” made famous by Brazil’s Pele. It is  not that Uruguay is playing a completely new and radical type of football today, but rather that they have put together a solid team through the work of a master, Oscar Washington Tabarez. The string of the team’s recent successes may soon come to an end or perhaps will continue into the near future, but what is certain is that present is what the present is, and Uruguay stands in third place in the FIFA rankings. Although it is just a number, it’s a number that we really like. 
This year is special because Uruguay becomes an Olympic contender, something that it has only ever been twice and both instances were long ago (in 1924 and 1928). The fact is that both of those times were triumphs and to return to win the championship again after 84 years fills us with pride. To return, as our compatriot Carlos Gardel once said, is the important thing.
Everyone who enjoys football follows their own team and are the avid fans of their choice. They feel personally proud of what their team achieves. For me, as an Uruguayan, I am proud to know that our team won those tournaments during the twentieth century, particularly because we always tend to see ourselves as a small country, where such achievements always seem difficult. I want people to know this, and to learn to draw a football stadium in 3D, because Uruguay has 4 stars on its coat that distinguishes it for the amount of times it has won a world title. For this reason it is necessary to educate others about the beginning of it all, the historic moment that led Uruguay to create the first and only monument to football recognized by FIFA up to this point- the Estadio Centenario. It is a stadium with distinctive characteristics  and character, for all of the championships have been won there have been won by Uruguay, something that cannot be said for any other stadium in the world. This place is special to Uruguayans and I want to explain to everyone exactly why.
In the first place, the Estadio came by the name of Centenario because July 18, 1930 (the end of the World Cup) marked the 100th anniversary of the Constitution of Uruguay. That day was the final game of the championship, a game which ended four to two, Uruguay over Argentina. These countries, which share much more than a sun on their flags, have a distinctive accent which, although not common to all inhabitants of both countries, is the way of speaking that is more traditionally recognizable. There are short phrases that to the ear of a citizen of another country mean nothing but, to our ears, distinguish us. We are separated by the Río Uruguay, which is (on average) 2 km wide and meets with the mouth of the Paraná River where they form the Rio de la Plata and then onward to the Atlantic Ocean. 




Uruguay is, as someone said, “the unnamed country”, because its real name is República Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Republic of Uruguay), which is yet another form adapted from its original name, Banda Oriental (Eastern Band), given it by the first settlers. This was in reference to the fact that their discovery was the strip of land that lay east of the Uruguay River. This old name identified the people living there so strongly that today the citizens of Uruguay can be recognized as “Uruguayan” or “oriental” interchangeably. That trend extends to the world of football where, springing from the term “garra charrúa” (Charruan claw), we are known as “Charruas” (an indigenous tribe that was native to the area  and made extinct in the mid-nineteenth century). The name Uruguay, in and of itself, is a name that is believed to have origins in the native word “Guarani”, which means “river of birds”, although there are several other hypotheses. It is a small country of 3.5 million inhabitants whose capital, Montevideo, has a population of just over 1.5 million people. Among the most striking characteristics of the “little country”, as we lovingly call the east of our land, is its especially outstanding football achievements. Keep in mind that in the early twentieth century, Uruguay, like all sovereign nations in South America, was very young. The cities were changing and societies of the time felt the need to tell the world where they stood and who they were. Football was a way to help nations forward their international agendas and create a presence for themselves on the global stage. 
It all started in the late nineteenth century when the British, on top of their contribution of the railways, brought their sport, football, to the Rio de la Plata. In fact, the first international match to be played outside the British Isles was in 1901 between Uruguay and Argentina, where Buenos Aires won in Montevideo, 3 to 2. Some even say that both countries played a preliminary game on August 15, 1889. That time, history suggests, the team from Buenos Aires defeated Montevideo, as well. 
The first international classic took place in the Rio de la Plata. Argentina  won game after game until Montevideo River Plate’s team overthrew the trend by beating the powerful Alumni Porteño 2 to 1 (now a defunct team). River Plate’s team then continued to win over an Argentine team, wearing their light blue shirts. Uruguay won the game against Argentina at 3 to 2 in September 1903 in a tournament played in Buenos Aires. The Uruguayan team was made up entirely of the National Montevideo team, undefeated in their own national championship. Although everything seemed to point to the idea that Argentina would easily win the tournament, as they had earlier thrashed Uruguay in a 6-0 game in Montevideo Central Park, it was the power of sheer numbers and facts that began to change the balance in favor of the “Orientales”. 
On August 15, 1910 in Montevideo, Uruguay won its first international victory against Argentina with a score of 3 to 1. They wore the blue shirt that would come to be the official clothing choice of the team, still true today.
In 1916, Argentina organized the first continental tournament, the first tournament in the world of its kind. The winner of that first America’s Cup was the very sky-blue that would return to take home another victory the following year. 
A small curse seemed to follow Argentina’s team from that point on- they could not win major championships because they always lost the titles to Uruguay. In 1923, Uruguay became part of FIFA and this in turn forced the COI to play them for the first World Cup title during the 1924 Olympics in Paris. At that time, the Olympic champion would also be the indisputable world champion. Uruguay surprised, and with a new and different approach to game play, eventually won the tournament.

On its trip to Paris, the Uruguayan team’s ship made a stop in Vigo, Spain. In honor of the reigning Olympic champions, the Celta de Vigo wore blue. When they reached Paris, Yugoslavia’s team wanted to know how this unknown team played. According to the story, Uruguay’s head coach ordered his players to change their positions of play, the left field players switching to the right and the right to the left.The aim was to confuse the Yugoslavs who, seeing how poorly the opposition played, were passive and unprepared when it came time for their first real encounter. Uruguay won 7 to 0 and Europe began to wonder who these newcomers really were. In 1928 in Amsterdam, Argentina also traveled to Europe to prove itself. The final between Uruguay and Argentina showed the world that South America, particularly Rio de Plata, was going through a great moment for football. Uruguay won again and talk began for organizing a world championship beneath FIFA. Uruguay’s need to be made visible in the world had been achieved. Organizing the first World Cup was almost a matter of national duty in order to confirm the nation’s influence and prestige. So, with the support of Jules Rimet, president of FIFA, and with additional assistance from the Argentine organization, the first World Cup was made reality. The date to celebrate the momentous first tournament shared its historical significance by also being the 100th anniversary of the constitution of Uruguay. The Estadio Centenario was born.  Today, Uruguay and Argentina are coming together to celebrate 100 years from the first official world championship beneath FIFA. It is very likely to be done in Uruguay, and it is important for the “Orientales” to work in conjunction with their neighboring country, as it would be impossible to achieve alone such a project that would be sure to have economic implications too profound to be footed by a single nation of its size. However, for an Uruguayan to even have the opportunity to host a new World Cup, it becomes less of an option and more of a patriotic duty. It’s in our DNA, we are born wanting to see an Uruguayan victory and with the knowledge that by being hosts we will have more opportunities. It is my time to give something to gain the honor of being a part of this great tournament. My grain of sand in the scales of the effort is this book, which intends to reach out to my readers, educating them about the history of Uruguay through the sport that gave us our place on the map. Our objective is to do the same through a new medium, put Uruguay on the real international map through an imaginary story, the creation of a 3D football stadium.  I have asked some Uruguayan players to come forward and say a few words for my book. At the moment, I am lucky to have Enzo Francescoli and Diego Lugano; I hope soon to have more players who once wore the blue and played in the Centennial. When this is so I will continue to tell the story.

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